kwale

kwale

Inspirational Prayer of the Day

Translate; UNAWEZA KUITAFSIRI BLOG HII KWA LUGHA ZAIDI YA 60

ELIMU MAALUM JUU YA UFUGAJI NA UTUNZAJI WA KWALE

The Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) originates from Eastern Asia. In a wild quails are migratory birds living in grassland and cultivated fields. The colour of the Japanese quail is typically speckled

A pair of Japanese Quail sitting in the grassyellow-brown, with a light creamy strip running from the eyes towards the back of the head, but quail can also come in other colours like white, white-black, speckled red-brown or cream-brown. An adult quail will reach around 20cm (7 ¾ Inch) in height and around 150g (5 ounces) in weight. Their domestication has began as early as in the fourteen century. At first quails became popular as game birds but at later stage the commercial keeping of quail has kicked off because of their tasty eggs and meat. The biggest commercial revolution of the quail began after 1910 when they were divided into two groups; for egg production and for the table. Nowadays the quail is not the most popular little bird among bird keepers even though it would deserve a lot more attention. Quail can be kept in cages or small aviary enclosures covered with tightly woven mesh. On a small scale you can keep 10 to 15 quails in 1 square meter floor area. This amount of quail will provide enough eggs for a family of four. The keeping of quail on a small scale is fairly simple. Quails like to stay on the floor, hardly ever jump up onto higher places, which means that if you’ve had an aviary already in place with other birds in it, you could just place some quail in there and they would be happy to pick up every edible particle from the floor that the other birds may drop. If kept outside, you would have to provide a draught free zone (shelter) for the quail where they can hide from the bad weather. In outside conditions the quail will stop laying eggs during the colder winter period but if kept inside under good conditions like enough space, food, temperature above 16ºC (61º F) and enough light, the quail would normally lay around 280 – 290 eggs a year. If you want to keep quails for their eggs, the best practice is to have a 3 to 1 hen to rooster rate, that’s when quail will lay the most eggs and it’s also an optimal rate if you want to breed them. The domesticated quail doesn’t make a nest and will not become a sitting hen so you would have to incubate the eggs for hatching. The Quail will start laying eggs at around 10-12 weeks of its age and will lay eggs actively for about 14-15 months if kept under optimal conditions. Apart from human consumption game bird keepers often feed their birds with boiled quail eggs and get brilliant results because of the high vitamin and nutrition volume.

If you would like to know more about the Japanese Quail or you're planning to keep quail please choose a topic from the main menu to learn more about these wonderful birds.

Golden Manchurian (Italian) QuailTexas Quail in grassland

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

ZIFAHAMU TARATIBU NA RATIBA ZA UCHANJAJI WA KUKU KUANZIA VIFARANGA NA KUKU WAKUBWA.


TARATIBU NA RATIBA ZA UCHANJAJI
    Wakati wa kutayarisha mpango wa kuchanja kuku kwa ajili ya kinga dhidi ya magonjwa, kuna vipengele vikuu sita Ambavyo unatakiwa uvifahamu na kuvizingatia. Vipengele hivyo ni kama ifuatavyo:
1. Vifaranga vinavyoanguliwa kwa pamoja:
 Iwapo una kundi zaidi ya moja la vifaranga wanaoanguliwa,
Weka utaratibu wa chanjo ambao utapunguza uwezekano wa magonjwa kuenea shambani. Hivyo basi,
Hakikisha vifaranga na kuku wote wanapata chanjo kwa pamoja.
2. Umri wa kuchanja kuku:
Kwa kuku ambao wanatarajiwa kutaga mayai au kuwa kuku wazazi, chanjo
nyingi hutolewa si zaidi ya mwezi mmoja kabla ya kuku kuanza kutaga. Pia kuna baadhi ya chanjo ambazo haziruhusiwi kwa kuku wadogo. (Angalia Ratiba).
3. Magonjwa muhimu katika eneo husika:
Ni muhimu sana kuelewa magonjwa ya kuku yaliyopo katika eneo lako kabla ya kuandaa programu ya uchanjaji, hasa kwa yale magonjwa ambayo chanjo zenye
Vimelea hai hutumika. Hivyo basi, sio busara kuanza kutumia chanjo za aina hii katika maeneo ambayo
Ugonjwa huo haujawahi kuripotiwa.
4. Hali ya kiafya ya kuku watakaochanjwa:
 Usiwape chanjo kuku ambao wanaonyesha dalili za kuathirika kwa mfumo wa hewa au wanaonyesha kuwa na minyoo au wadudu wengine. Kwa kuku walio na dalili hizi chanjo zinaweza kuleta madhara na zisifanye kazi.
5. Aina ya kuku watakaochanjwa:
Kuku wanaofugwa kwa ajili ya nyama wanahitaji kinga ya muda mfupi, hivyo basi chanjo moja inaweza kutosha kabla ya kufikia umri wa kuuzwa. Lakini kuku wa mayai na kuku wazazi wanahitaji programu ya chanjo ambayo itawakinga na magonjwa kwa kipindi chote wanapokua na kutaga. (Zingatia Ratiba).
6. Historia ya Magonjwa katika shamba:
Kabla ya kuandaa mpango wa chanjo, lazima ufahamu ni
Magonjwa gani yaliyoenea katika shamba.
a) Kama unataka kuingiza kuku wapya kutoka mahali ambako ugonjwa umeshawahi kutokea,
kuku hao wachanjwe wiki 3 kabla ya kuwaingiza shambani
b) Iwapo utatumia chanjo yenye vimelea hai, hakikisha kwamba magonjwa hayo yameshawahi
kutokea katika shamba husika. Usitumie chanjo hizi katika shamba ambalo ugonjwa huo
haujawahi kutokea au kutambuliwa.
c) Wasiliana na mashamba jirani kufahamu iwapo wanatumia chanjo zenye vimelea hai. Toa taarifa
kwa mamlaka za mifugo iwapo unapanga kutumia chanjo hizo katika eneo lako. Pata ushauri wa daktari.

TARATIBU ZA UCHANJAJI
Mambo muhimu ya kuzingatia:                                                                                         
  •Hakikisha unazingatia kwa makini masharti ya mtengenezaji wa chanjo: jinsi ya kuhifadhi, kutayarisha na njia inayotumika kumchanja kuku. Wakati wote zingatia masharti ya mtengenezaji kuhusu uhifadhi wa chanjo ili isipoteze nguvu.     
                                                                                              
 • Fuata ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo unapoandaa programu ya chanjo.                                         
  • Watoa chanjo wapatiwe mafunzo ya jinsi ya kutayarisha na kutoa chanjo                                     
   • Chagua aina ya chanjo kulingana na umri na hali ya kiafya ya kuku.                                           
   • Fanya usafi wa mara kwa mara katika mabanda ili kupunguza wingi wa vimelea kwenye mazingira.
 • Tumia maji ambayo hayajawekwa dawa au kemikali kwa ajili ya kuchanganyia chanjo, k.m. maji ya kisima, mvua, n.k. Maji ya kuchanganyia chanjo yawe na ubaridi, yasiwe moto.                                   
 • Changanya chanjo kabla ya kutumia na iwekwe mbali na kuku.                               
     • Pata ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo kabla ya kuchanja kuku wagonjwa au wale ambao hawako katika muonekano mzuri
• Siku ya chanjo, usiwape kuku maji kwa masaa 3 – 4 ili waweze kunywa maji yaliyowekwa chanjo kwa haraka.                                                                                                                           
 • Zoezi la uchanjaji lifanyike haraka ili kupunguza usumbufu kwa kuku.                                                
 • Tenganisha kuku waliochanjwa na wale ambao hawajachanjwa.                                          
         • Baada ya kuchanjwa, kuku wawekwe kwenye banda linalopitisha hewa vizuri                                                   
 • Baada ya kila zoezi la kuchanja, wafanyakazi wabadilishe mavazi, viatu/buti zisafishwe na kuwekwa dawa, na vifaa vilivyotumika viwekwe dawa ya kuua vimelea.                                                             
   • Fuata utaratibu uliowekwa wa kuharibu/kusafisha vifaa vilivyotumika kuchanja                                    
   • Weka kumbukumbu za uchanjaji vizuri
Mambo ambayo hutakiwi kuyafanya unapochanja
• Kumwaga chanjo ovyo na kuchafua mikono au nguo
• Kuchanganya chanjo za aina mbili au zaidi, isipokuwa pale tu mtengenezaji wa chanjo atakavyoagiza
hivyo, au kwa ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo.
• Kutumia chanjo iliyopita muda wake
• Kutumia chanjo iliyobaki ili itumike kwa kazi ya siku nyingine
• Kuchanja kuku ambao wamepatiwa dawa aina ya antibiotiki.
• Kuchanja zaidi ya chanjo moja kwa wakati, iwapo haikuagizwa hivyo.
CHANJO ZINAZO PENDEKEZWA

Aina ya Chanjo
Umri wa Kuchanja Kuku
Muda kati ya kutoa chanjo
Njia inayotumika kuchanja kuku
Lasota – kwa ajili ya Mdondo/Kideri
Kifaranga wa Siku 3
Rudia baada ya siku 21, baada ya hapo kila baada ya miezi 3
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa
Chanjo inayohimili joto - I-2 kwa ajili ya Mdondo/Kideri
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Rudia baada ya kila miezi 4 kwa kuku wa mayai na wazazi
Tone la chanjo kwenye jicho kwa kila kuku
Hipraviar-B1 - kwa ajili ya
Mdondo/Kideri na Ugonjwa wa Mapafu (Infectious Bronchitis)
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Rudia baada ya siku 21, baada ya hapo kila baada ya miezi 3
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa
VIR-114 – kwa ajili ya Gumboro
Siku 10 au 14
Inaweza kurudiwa Siku ya 17 kwa
wale waliochanjwa wakiwa na Siku
10; na Siku ya 28 kwa wale waliochanjwa wakiwa na Siku 14
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa.
Avipro – kwa ajili ya Ndui ya Kuku
Wiki 7 hadi 14
Chanjo moja
Chanja katikati ya ngozi
kwa kutumia utando wa ngozi kwenye bawa
Chanjo ya Mareksi
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Chanjo moja
Chanja ndani ya tumbo au chini ya ngozi

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